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Archive for September, 2009

percy_christmas

Woolworths was started in Sydney, December 6th, 1924 (85th anniversary coming up soon!)by Percy Christmas, who was born in Kiama and son of the local Bank manager, Robert Christmas, (and grandfather Charles Christmas) and his wife Mary Caroline King

The Kings are a very well known family around Kiama, even today, and include such respectable members such as Alexander King. J.P. (farmer, storekeeper and magistrate)and Moses King (Mary’s grandfather) and her sister Ada King, who married Sir George Fuller who went on to be Premier of NSW and therefore Percy Christmas’ uncle.

Here is the entry for Mary Caroline King.
http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=AHN&db=patientgenie&id=I38

Her father was Alexander King (Not surprisingly an Ulster Protestant born in Armagh)and her mother Margaret Marks.

Here is the Christmas family tree (well-decorated I am sure)
http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=patientgenie&id=I68

Percy was the eldest, with two brothers (Raymond and Cecil) and two sisters (Kath and Florence). Percy was born ‘Harold Percival Christmas’ on 5 May 1884 at Kiama, New South Wales. He was educated at educated at Neutral Bay Public School and in 1898-99 at Sydney Church of England Grammar School. His father was Robert Christmas and his mother Mary Caroline King and his grandfather was Charles James Christmas.
Here is the bank (now Westpac Kiama) where his father Robert Chritsmas was manager from 1881 to 1883.
City bank 1874
and here are notes about his tenure!
R Christmas appointed manager 1881

and in 1883
R Christmas dismissed 1883
The Australian Online biography has this to say:
http://adbonline.anu.edu.au/biogs/A070657b.htm

“CHRISTMAS, HAROLD PERCIVAL (1884-1947), retailer, was born on 5 May 1884 at Kiama, New South Wales, eldest son of Robert Christmas, bank clerk and later manager, and his wife Mary Caroline, née King.”

This section is from
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Woolworths_Limited

“Woolworths opened its first store, the Woolworths Stupendous Bargain Basement, in the old Imperial Arcade in Pitt Street, Sydney, on 5 December 1924. Its nominal capital was just £25,000 and although 15,000 shares were offered to the public, only 11,707 shares were subscribed for by 29 people, including the five founders – Percy Christmas, Stanley Chatterton, Cecil Scott Waine, George Creed and Ernest Williams. One of the foundation investors was Preston Lanchester Gowing, the then chairman of Gowings.”
Here is an article and a picture of the original basement!
ScreenHunter_01 Sep. 28 12.27<

“However, according to Ernest Robert Williams, Percy Christmas dared him to register the name Woolworths instead, which he succeeded in doing after finding out the name was available for use in New South Wales. Accordingly, Woolworths Ltd in Australia has no connection with the F.W. Woolworth Company in the United States.

The new Woolworths store was innovative; it was the first variety store in the world to use cash registers that print receipts for customers.”

Why does Woolworths have the red and white lettering in its logo?
http://adbonline.anu.edu.au/biogs/A070657b.htm
woolworths%201924
" In 1928 he opened a second branch in Pitt Street, and introduced the distinctive red and white uniform for shop assistants who knew him as 'Father Christmas!' "
Red and white are the colours of Father Christmas!
blacklers_santa_stairs

There is a great history of early Woolworths here
http://www.dse.com.au/isroot/dse%5Csupport/woolworths_history.pdf
ScreenHunter_02 Sep. 28 12.58
PERCY CHRISTMAS OF KIAMA
and also a book called ‘The Woolworths Way’ a great Australian success story 1924-1999
by James Murray also exists.
http://catalogue.nla.gov.au/Record/179143
“The founders of Woolworths Limited were Harold Percival Christmas, Stanley Edward
Chatterton, George William Percival Creed, Ernest Robert Williams and Cecil Scott Waine.
Percy Christmas and Stanley Chatterton had opened a first-floor Frock Salon in the Queen Victoria
Markets (now the Queen Victoria Building) at the corner of Market and George Streets, Sydney.
The business named S.E. Chatterton Ltd was soon successful and making a handsome profit so
Scott Waine, a partner in the chartered accountancy firm of C. Scott Waine & Mitchell, joined
them to attend to the financial side.
By 1924 it was obvious that the premises of S.E. Chatterton were too small and another branch
seemed the solution. Chatterton and Christmas were offered portion of the basement of
Imperial Arcade currently occupied by the newspaper, ‘Smith’s Weekly’ and a billiard saloon.
The floor was on several levels and the atmosphere unsuitable for a retail business however
property was offered for a 41/2 years’ lease at a weekly rental of £42/10/- ($85) equivalent
32¢ per sq. ft. per annum so they decided to lease it despite its unsuitability for Chattertons.”

Here is an account of the first opening of Woolworths Stupendous Bargain Basement!
ScreenHunter_04 Sep. 28 13.03<
"On Friday, 5th December, 1924, Woolworths
Stupendous Bargain Basement opened for
business in Sydney’s Imperial Arcade. The
opening advertisement said: ‘Every city needs
a Woolworths: Sydney has it now. Every man,
woman and child needs a handy place where
good things are cheap.’
At 9am it seemed that every man, woman
and child was waiting for the roll-up wooden
doors of the store to open. Queues at the two
entrances stretched out of the Imperial
Arcade and along Pitt and Castlereagh Street.
Inside all was ready. Staff had been at work
since 6.30 am. Stock was piled high on the
dark wooden counters, held in at the front by
wire netting and separated by wooden
dividers.
The doors went up and the crowds poured
down the two narrow stairways. Some,
unhappily, went over the banisters.
Ventilation was poor, it was a hot December
day, and very soon customers were fainting
and the lunchroom had to be converted to a
casualty station.
There were bargains galore. Cup, saucer and plate, usually 2/6 (25¢), only 9d (8¢); cut glass
engagement rings 2/- (20¢); on the sixpenny (5¢) counters were scrub brushes, jars of Vaseline,
vegetable shredders and all over Sydney people were carrying straw brooms. They were a special
at 1/- (10¢) – unwrapped."
Harold Percival Christmas’ obituary notice in the Sydney Morning Herald June 20th, 1947.
ScreenHunter_01 Sep. 28 16.17
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On a further ‘Christmas and Kiama’ note there was the well known Jamberoo illustrator Jack Waugh who did a well-known Arnotts ad for the Australian Women’s Weekly that was reproduced a number of times

http://www.kiamaindependent.com.au/article/march_is_red_cross_month
http://www.collectingbooksandmagazines.com/waugh.html

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kiama_bigThis will draw heavily on the book People and Politics in Regional New South Wales’ by Jim Hagan,(http://books.google.com.au/books?id=0KAJDc-AvPMC&pg=PA79&lpg=PA79&dq=Federal+seat+Illawarra&source=bl&ots=U9_GBxtsFS&sig=EV8RRDKYiBmuj_HZ8pmeID3OTDM&hl=en&ei=PwLHSuf1O4LwsQPs5PihBQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=4#v=onepage&q=Federal%20seat%20Illawarra&f=false) but with some greater depth and focus on NSW state elections in this period only.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electoral_district_of_Kiama
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electoral_district_of_Wollondilly

Kiama has had many illustrous representatives serving the people of Kiama at local, State and Federal level.
Here is the complete list of elected representatives for Kiama here.
http://www.parliament.nsw.gov.au/resources/nswelectionsanalysis/DistrictIndexes/Kiama.htm
Henry Parkes was the Member for Kiama and later Premier on no less than five different occasions.
A050455
http://adbonline.anu.edu.au/biogs/A050455b.htm?hilite=parkes
Sir Joseph Carruthers was born at Glenburn, Jamberoo in 1857 and went on to be Premier from 1904 to 1907.
A070582
http://adbonline.anu.edu.au/biogs/A070582b.htm

Sir George Fuller, of Dunmore House was Premier. in 1921 (for about four hours) and from 1922 to 1925.
A080613
http://adbonline.anu.edu.au/biogs/A080613b.htm
Tom Lewis was member for Wollondilly which included Kiama and Premier form 1975 to 1976 (when Robert Askin retired). When Tom Lewis left, this ushered in the modern era of Labor members, with Bill Knott winning in the by-election in 1978.
a1300020r
http://www.parlpapers.sl.nsw.gov.au/display.cfm?parl_id=10800

Since then the seat, for 33 years until 2009, has been held by ALP members, former Shellharbour Mayor Bob Harrison after Bill Knott, and the current Member Matt Brown.

Ealier Members for Kiama of note include Samuel Charles, Harman Tarrant, and Angus Cameron (essentially the anti-Parkes faction).

The first Member for Kiama was Samuel William Gray
0

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Samuel_Gray_(Australian_politician)
who was elected twice (with with 70% in 1859 and unopposed in 1860). He was a son of James Mackay Gray and part of the numerous Gray clan based around Omega Retreat, Gerringong and Kangaroo Valley. A pastoralist and grazier, he also was an Ulster Protestant and born in Armagh. His father along with Henry Osbourne of Marshall Mount ( one of the largest landowners inthe colony) paid to assist migration of many Ulster Protestants (many with Orange and military service) from Killesher and Drumkeeran in County Fermanagh and the parish of Dromore, including the town of Omagh in County Tyrone. (Osbourne was from Armagh, Gray from Fermanagh)
http://books.google.com.au/books?id=yTKFBXfCI1QC&pg=PA464&lpg=PA464&dq=kiama+politics&source=bl&ots=8rEHnb-tKq&sig=JNOgYRELrGpJV1WJcgJ09z8g4Nk&hl=en&ei=91_ISoW7ComEswOIj72iBQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=8#v=onepage&q=kiama%20politics&f=false The Ulster Protestant connection in local politics would dominate for many years.
His parliamentary career is here (He was also a member for Illawarra and Richmond)and certainly seems an impressive commitee record.
http://www.parliament.nsw.gov.au/prod/PARLMENT/Members.nsf/1fb6ebed995667c2ca256ea100825164/0e414a57720abb7fca256e310005de67!OpenDocument
Interestingly his daughter Mabel Gertrude Gray married Vice-Admiral Sir Maurice Swynfen Fitzmaurice who in addition to a silly name had an illustrious career in the British Navy and was appointed Knight Commander, Royal Victorian Order in 1925 and Vice-Admiial in 1926.
http://www.thepeerage.com/p38856.htm.

Henry Parkes was the next member for Kiama and elected in 1864 and was member for the next five elections until 1871. He had a tumultous time, culminating in the Kiama Ghost Speech, but was much supported by the Protestant Orangemen Lodges of Kiama.

The next Member for Kiama was John Stewart.
A060214
http://adbonline.anu.edu.au/biogs/A060214b.htm
He was a veterinary professor from Glasgow and ended up a leader writer for the Illawarra Mercury. He was regarded as irreligious by some Protestants, but seems in his political career to be quite flexible in his views, especially on issues like Public education. He seems to be a good example of the fairly short pendulum swing in Kiama elections between hard line Orange Protestant groups, around people like Gray and Parkes, and the more tolerant, and probably Freemason freethinkers around people like Dr Harman Tarrant and Samuel Charles. He also was mainly based in the Illawarra and part of the fluid politics where Members were only loosely grouped behind leaders such as Parkes and Cowper.

Samuel Charles was the next elected Member for Kiama, in 1874.
A030362
He was a figure much more closely identified with the Kiama district and seems a fairly colorful character noted for his opposition to Henry Parkes. His three Irish laborers were charged with trying to shoot ‘Loyal’ Grey of Loyal Valley, a noted Orangemen just after Henry Parke’s infamous ‘Kiama Ghost’ speech and he paid for their defence and evidence shows it was a put-up job. (According to a Charles descendant writing a family history of Samuel Charles). Samuel seems to have been a moderate figure in Kiama Politics. He had the Eureka property which is now Kiama Downs, made his money in shipping gold miners to San Francisco, and his daughter opened the Kiama harbour.
http://adbonline.anu.edu.au/biogs/A030362b.htm

The next Member was Doctor Harman Tarrant, a very senior figure in Freemasonry in NSW as the first Grand Master of the United NSW Freemason Lodge.( there is a story he had to knock Lord Carrington, as he arrived by ship to be NSW Governor up several degrees before he take up his duties!)http://www.uglnsw.freemasonry.org.au/Library/Pillars/POL_May06.pdf
He died in a horse riding accident as did many of our local doctors. When he died he is supposed to have had the largest funeral in Kiama history. Dr Tarrant seems to the last of the ‘anti-Parkes’ members elected and had a brother who was also a doctor and prominent in Kiama affairs.
STG17124
Hee is his commitee work.
http://www.parliament.nsw.gov.au/prod/parlment/members.nsf/72d0ddea395c958cca2572ba0023fc76/ab362303c11384a9ca256e5f000c9dd2!OpenDocument
http://www.uglnsw.freemasonry.org.au/Library/Pillars/POL_May06.pdf
ScreenHunter_01 Oct. 02 21.05
July3, 1880 Maitland Mercury * from the telegraph so it would have appeared in most newspapers)
ScreenHunter_03 Oct. 02 21.09
The Sydney Mail January 1st, 1887

After Tarrant was Angus Cameron.
http://adbonline.anu.edu.au/biogs/A030311b.htm
A030311

Here is the coverage of his speech on election day, (covered in the Sydney Mail, Jan 8, 1887) where he was elected despite the previous strong running of Bruce Smith. Angus had risen through the ranks of the carpenters union to be Secretary of the NSW Trades and Labour Council, and was supported by Parkes. He was opposed by Bruce Smith a radical political theorist of the libertarian school whose speech was covered in the same newspaper issue and had spoken the day earlier. His meeting was chaired by Samuel Marks.
http://adbonline.anu.edu.au/biogs/A110657b.htm
Here is Bruce Smith’s entire book ‘Liberty and Liberalism’ (460 pages!)
http://books.google.com.au/books?id=XWdLbEndRa0C&dq=Bruce+smtih+Liberty+and+Liberalism&printsec=frontcover&source=bl&ots=XvhyrElyf9&sig=VA1d6GyI-hiPfVYyJNKKttBEgoE&hl=en&ei=-ePFSuyZCoPosQO8ppGiBQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=5
and here!
http://oll.libertyfund.org/index.php?option=com_staticxt&staticfile=show.php%3Ftitle=296&Itemid=27

ScreenHunter_04 Oct. 02 21.17
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ScreenHunter_06 Oct. 02 21.24
Angus Cameron served for two years and duing this period Labor emerged as a political force but did not run in such a rural seat as Kiama.
The next member after Angus Cameron was George Warburton Fuller who was elected in 1889 and served until 1894. (See above)

After George Fuller was Alexander Campbell who served until 1904. Both are identified as ‘Free Traders’.
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http://www.parliament.nsw.gov.au/Prod/Parlment/Members.nsf/5ffc499ff22ad4ddca256ce7007f7452/878eae40f83fcfe1ca256cbc001eac9d!OpenDocumentHowever Alexander Campbell changed camps and became ‘Independent Protectionist’.

After 1904 Kiama and Shoalhaven were abolished and combined into one as ‘Allowrie’ which stretched from Ulladulla to past Dapto in the north. In time the seat included the steel workers at Port Kembla and the quarry workers at Bombo and attracted the interest of Labor candidates such as CW Craig, a former Mayor and dairy factory director. However Allowrie was held by the Liberal Party (of former Jamberoo boy Joseph Carruthers, who went on to be Premie) until 1917. George Fuller was representing Wollondilly and both he and Morton had the strong support of the local Orange and Freemason lodges. The Protestant vote was very real and even a Protestant Labor Party started up in this period.
Things get a bit complicated with muli-member electorates tried in 1920 and Kiama was included in the very large electorate of Wollondilly (which absorbed the previous seats of Allowrie and Wollongong) http://electoral_district_of_wollondilly.totallyexplained.com/
and three members were returned, Fuller, William Davies and John Cleary ) possibly of the prominent Kiama quarrying Clearys) and Mark Morton was defeated.
This was a system of proportional voting based on the Hare-Clark system and was used for the 1920, 1922 and 1925 NSW State elections. IN 1930 NSW went to compulsory preferential. During this period Fuller was Premier and later Lang. After Fuller resigned his seat in 1928 the perennial Mark Morton
http://www.parliament.nsw.gov.au/prod/parlment/members.nsf/1fb6ebed995667c2ca256ea100825164/b9497722dca46ca0ca256e4b0001efa4!OpenDocument
4
took over and represented the area of Wollondilly (including Kiama ) for the next four terms , from 1928 to 1938. Morton National Park is named after him.

Henry Bate was Member for South Coast from 1927 to 1941 for the United Australia Party ( Menzies) until defeated in 1941.
http://www.parliament.nsw.gov.au/prod/parlment/members.nsf/1fb6ebed995667c2ca256ea100825164/123cd21392b06252ca256e2000156bde!OpenDocument

In 1941 Rupert Beale ran as an Independent for the seat of South Coast (which included Kiama) as the propietor of the New Brighton hotel in Kiama using his infamous shark trailer gimmick (see article on Big Ben the Tiger Shark) http://www.parliament.nsw.gov.au/prod/parlment/members.nsf/1fb6ebed995667c2ca256ea100825164/792d400b96f8b097ca256e200018998e!OpenDocument
and died a year later and his son Jack Beale went onto take the seat for thirty years until 1971 when he lost it to the independent John Hatton.
1<
Jeff Bate, the son of the Member for South Coast Henry Bate, served as Member for Wollondilly (including Kiama) from 1938 to 1950
http://www.parliament.nsw.gov.au/prod/parlment/members.nsf/1fb6ebed995667c2ca256ea100825164/a0d67213863250a3ca256e2000149e63!OpenDocumentand was a prominent local Freemason and heavily involved in the local dairy industry. He moved to Federal Politics and represented Kiama in the Federal seat of Marcarthur from 1949 to 1972 when he lost to the ALP's John Kerin (who went on to be the last Federal Treasurer for Keating.)
http://www.parliament.nsw.gov.au/prod/parlment/members.nsf/1fb6ebed995667c2ca256ea100825164/a0d67213863250a3ca256e2000149e63!OpenDocument

2
He was replaced by Blake Pelly, who served as Liberal member for Wollondilly
http://www.parliament.nsw.gov.au/prod/parlment/members.nsf/ec78138918334ce3ca256ea200077f5d/1a682daa5914d7a3ca256e4e0004f893!OpenDocument
until replaced by Tom Lewis in 1957 in a by-election.

After Tom Lewis left in 1976 (after being Premier from 1974 to 1976)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tom_Lewis_(Australian_politician)Bill Knott won Wollondilly in 1978 (not in a by-election) as part of the Wranslide election, one of the largest in NSW history (Wran had previously a one seat majority in 1976).
He represented the new seat of Kiama until 1986 when he retired with ill health. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bill_Knott
http://www.parliament.nsw.gov.au/prod/parlment/members.nsf/1fb6ebed995667c2ca256ea100825164/da6877d0609c7dbfca256e3c001a6a10!OpenDocument
5<
until he retired ( his son Peter Knott served one term as Federal Member for Gilmore) and Bob Harrison (former Shellharbour Mayor) took over in a by-election until 1999 when the current member Matt Brown replaced him. Kiama has been a Labor seat for 33 years, since Bill Knott. The next NSW state election will be held on 27th March, 2011 with Matt Brown expected to receive a strong challenge from popular Labor Independent Kiama Mayor Sandra McCarthy, the Greens Deputy Mayor Ben van der Wijngaart ( I worked on Ben’s campaign) and the Liberal’s Gareth Ward.
At the 2011 state election, held on 25th March, Gareth Ward was elected with a swing of 12.0 per cent and won the seat with 57.5 per cent of the vote on a two party preferred basis.
Here is NSW Parliament Hansard with Gareth Ward as acting Speaker.
http://www.parliament.nsw.gov.au/prod/parlment/hansart.nsf/V3Key/LA20110525036
I will post his inaugural speech when it arrives on the NSW Parliament site.
http://www.illawarramercury.com.au/news/local/news/general/kiama-mp-gareth-wards-inaugural-speech-to-parliament/2180645.aspx

It seems Kiama has had about 11 by-elections in its history!

There is a great wiki article on all the Federal elections hee (check the footer bar for links to all Australian federal elections!)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Australian_federal_election,_1901
Federally, Kiama was represented by George Fuller
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Fuller_(Australian_politician)
in 1901 to 1913 until he re-entered State politics and later became Premier.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Division_of_Illawarra
after this it was George Burns for Labor 1913-1917
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Burns_(Australian_politician)
(at the height of the conscription debate I imagine) and
Hector Lamond (Labor newspaper publisher) from 1917 to 1922.
http://adbonline.anu.edu.au/biogs/A090658b.htm
After this Illawarra was included in the seat of Werriwa, and was held by ALP's Hubert Lazzarini.
http://adbonline.anu.edu.au/biogs/A150087b.htm
Kiama became part of the Federal seat of Macarthur when it was created in 1949. Bate lost it in 1972 to Kerin, who lost it later to Michael Baume in 1975 (when Whitlam lost) who lost the seat to Colin Hollis in 1980 (Michael Baume later became a Federal Liberal Senator until 1996). Colin Hollis was member for MacArthur until 1984 until it became the seat of Throsby and retired in 2001. In 1984 Kiama was part of Gilmore represented by Nationals John Sharpe until 1993 and in 1993 when Gilmore became more coastal by ALP's Peter Knott, and in 1996 the Liberals Joanna Gash was elected who in 2009 is still the current member for Gilmore (Gilmore and Throsby straddle the north of Kiama, but the next election is likely all of Kiama will be in Gilmore, making it a notionally Labor seat in 2010 and possibly Green preferences crucial to decide the result.) In fact in the election held on 21 August, 2010, Joanna Gash received a swing of 5.1% based on a massive spend by the LIberals (and hard street campaigning by Joanna) but is not expected to stand at the next election.
gilmore%20map%202007%20sml

Other prominent citizens from Kiama include Sir William Cullen NSW Chief Justice and NSW Lieutenant-Governor who was born in Jamberoo in1855. http://adbonline.anu.edu.au/biogs/A080186b.htm
Also during the period of the New Guard, it said that cells existed at Jamberoo and Kiama stockpiling rifles ( codenamed ‘lemonade) with the structures of the Orange Lodges to build on, seems quite likely. Certainly the Kiama Rifle Club was always very busy and numerous!

The Kiama Mayors and councillors from 1859 to 2009 can be found here.
http://www.kiama.nsw.gov.au/Corporate-Services/pdf/Business-Papers/090811-Sesquicentennial.pdf
ScreenHunter_01 Oct. 17 13.50
where the Kiama council split into three councils from 1889 to 1954 when they re-combined (the three councills usually had the same town clerk)

ScreenHunter_02 Oct. 17 13.52

In 1954 until now the mayors of Kiama are here.
ScreenHunter_03 Oct. 17 13.54
and the councillors since 1954
http://www.kiama.nsw.gov.au/corporate-services/list-of-councillors.html
One of the more colourful (despite his name) was John Black.
The Sydney Mail – 20 Aug 1881
ScreenHunter_04 Oct. 17 13.56

He was Major of the Kiama Volunteers for many years and died of apolexy while teaching Sunday school. I like the story of how he tried to pull down an extension ot the Tory Hotel (now Kiama Inn), which was opposite the Kiama council chambers of the time, with his own team of horses when the female proprietor came out and threw herself around the central pole, until restrained by the local police sergeant. There is a commitment against over-development!
Here is a record of a speech John Black made at a dinner after the Kiama company beat 1 company of Sydney in a shooting match. Note the sergeant was Henry Havelock Honey.

The Sydney Mail – 23 Aug 1873
The after dinner speech
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The shooting results
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Kiama at War

a05526

Sydney, NSW, 1885: infantrymen of the NSW Contingent to the Sudan, after their return to Australia. They are wearing khaki uniform issued for active service, and are equipped with Martini-Henry rifles.

P1020293
Kiama has had a long history of involvement in Australia’s Wars, starting with Robert Weir, aged 22, a Gerringong resident, who is officially Australia’s first overseas casualty. He died in the Sudan, at SUAKIN, 1 May 1885, of dysentery.

Here is the photo of his burial in Suakin in 1885.
p00441_001
Suakin, Sudan, 1885: grave of Robert Weir, the first Australian to die on active duty in the Sudan.
There is a great article on this war here.
http://www.awm.gov.au/atwar/sudan.asp

and a great article here on Robert Weir done as part of the Kiama Family History Newsletter Khanterintee November 2006.
ScreenHunter_01 Sep. 04 15.11
and
P1010262
ScreenHunter_02 Sep. 04 15.12

It is sad to think that an obelisk to Robert Weir in Soudak in Sudan, but little in his home town of Kiama ( I believe he has a plaque in the Soldier’s Memorial Tower at the Anglican Christ Church in Kiama)

Of course, Robert Weir was part of a broader tradition of military service in Kiama, starting with a militia ( the Kiama Volunteers). The fact above mentioning he was an Orangeman was no surprise, as Kiama had a number of prominent Orange Lodges, and many Northern Irish Protestants settled in Kiama, and were involved in the Orange movement. I suspect that nearly all members of the Kiama Volunteers were in fact Orangemen!
IllaIms%5CJSmall%5CP03%5CP03459
(Here are the Kiama Volunteers at Drill Square, with Drill Hall, where the Kiama Council Chambers now are)

and later service in the regular NSW Corp with such as Colonel and his sons Major and Captain Honey serving as officers(probably of “E” Company, 2nd Infantry Regiment). All the local rifle clubs (Albion Park, Jamberoo, Gerringong and Kiam were affiliated with this company) Colonel Honey wrote poetry in Kiama under the name ‘Mel’ (Latin for Honey) and his son Captain Honey was lost in the Minnamurra boating tragedy in 1896 on Boxing Day which claimed seven lives. The Honeys are well-known dairy farmers in Kiama at Riversdale, to this day. (Ben Honey was on the show ‘A Farmer Wants a Wife)
Captain Honey and the Kiama Soldiers
Captain Honey and the Kiama members of the NSW Defence Corps.

Kiama also sent soldiers to the Boer War, whose names were added to the Kiama Memorial Arch by the researches of the Kiama and District Historical Society’s Gordon Bell and published in the Kiama Independent in 1999.
and here they are!
Armstrong, Thomas William – Kiama
Atchison, Samuel Charles – Shellharbour
Boles, George Livingstone – Kiama
Brownlee, Fred – Kiama
Brownlee, John H. – Kiama
Brownlee, Thomas James – Kiama
Craig, Charles William Leslie – Kiama
Daley, Arthur Denis – Kiama
Dooley, John Sylvester – Kiama
Felts, David – Kiama
Gray, George – Kiama
Halliwell, Private Robert – Kiama
Johnston, Robert Alexander – Kiama
Keegan, Henry – Kiama
King, Trooper J. – Jamberoo
McClelland, Ernest Edward – Kiama
Prior, William Parker – Kiama
Prott, Leonard Clyde – Kiama. Died in Durban as a result of typhoid contracted during the war.
Smillie, James – Kiama
Smith, Charles William – Kiama
For more infomation go here.
http://members.pcug.org.au/~croe/ozb/oz_boer.cgi
From the Boer war to the First World War, the Kiama Volunteers and the rifle club played a major role in preparing for the defence of Australia, if needed.

Here is an account fo a meeting of the Kiama Rifle club in 1900 in the Town and County Journal.
south-coast-rifle-assn_kendalls-beach 300 range
“RIFLE SHOOTING.

The first meeting for the year of the South Coast Rifle Association’s Council was held at Kiama on August 15, Major H. H. Honey presiding, and there being also present: Lieutenant Stevensen, Sergeant Bales and G. Knight (Kiama) ; Messrs. G. Lindsay and C. W Prott (Wollongong); and Mr. J. Sharpe (Gerringong). The treasurer’s statement showed a credit balance of £217, which, considering the difficulties surrounding a first prize meeting, is most satisfactory. The membership of the association (915) is a record for a provincial association, and there was also a record number of competitors at the prize meeting. Major Honey was elected chairman for the year, and Lieutenant Stevensen hon. treasurer. The dates for the next prize meeting were fixed for March 19, 20, 21, 22, and 23, 1901. The association decided to place £200 at fixed deposit in the Government Savings Bank. It was resolved to at once apply to the Minister for Defence for the current year’s grant of £250, and to ask him to push on with the resumption of the land for the range. Mr. R. O. Kendall and Miss C. Kendall were granted an honorarium of £5 for allowing the association to proceed with a prize meeting before the land was resumed.”
Charles Willliam Prott was the star shot of the region, and lived at Kiama (becoming eventually the Wollongong Post Master) but was famous as a rifle shot. He told everyone he was Belgian but in fact was German, a fact of some embarrassment during World War I!
http://alh-research.tripod.com/Light_Horse/index.blog/1908837/rifles-clubs-charles-william-prott-1851-1926/
Captain Stevenson who commanded the local Kiama contingent ( E Company) was so revered, that when he died n 1909 he had an obelisk to him built in Manning Street, and one of the largest funeral in Kiama’s history.
Captain C. M. Stevenson monument
SMH Feb15 1909

Captain C. M. Stevenson took over E Company frm Major Honey, and ran a store in Kiama, but importantly was a founding Kiama Freemason and very active in his Lodge and District. He had a Masonic funeral and the town, including the quarries, was shut down and more than a thousand people took part in his funeral procession. Makes one wonder if there was tensions between the Orangemen and the Freemasons who were part of the local Kiama militia!
Here is the obelisk ( Somewhat Egyptian looking, appropiately for a Freemson!) today
P1020191
outside the Kiama Council Chambers
P1020194
http://alh-research.tripod.com/Light_Horse/index.blog?start=1223203673
Just before the start of World War I, Captain Colin Dunmore Fuller was Captain of the
28th (Illawarra) Light Horse as part of the Militia and were naturally the core of the Light Horse called up when the First World War started.
(Attatched for training, 1913-14, to 3rd Light Horse Brigade.)

fuller

Head-Quarters – Albion Park

Commanding Officer – Captain Colin Dunmore Fuller, Tenure of command from 1 July 1912 to 30 June 1917
Adjutant – Lieutenant JA Raftery, 16 July 1913
Quartermaster –
Medical Officer – Captain KRW George
Lieutenant John Sylvester Dooley, Area Officer Bulli

“A” Squadron –

Albion Park (A Troop and B Troop), and

Robertson (C Troop and D Troop)

Captain P Connolly, 16 January 1913
Lieutenant JD Wood, VD
Second Lieutenant HG Fraser
Second Lieutenant WJ Payne, 2 December 1912
Second Lieutenant F Brownie, 30 April 1913
Second Lieutenant LJ Brooker, 16 October 1913

http://alh-research.tripod.com/Light_Horse/index.blog?topic_id=1113234

Colonel Fuller is regarded as “Illawarra Most Famous Soldier’.
http://www.lighthorse.org.au/Pershist/fuller.htm
It was his suggestion that the Memorial Arch n Hindmarsh Park was built.
“Barely one month after his commission was terminated, suggestions were made proposing a war memorial be built in Kiama; among the first suggestions, it was proposed that the memorial be a drinking fountain at the local surf beach reserve. Thereafter followed some years of debate; in 1924 a memorial wing at the hospital was proposed and eventually, at Colin’s suggestion, the construction of a memorial arch on the corner of Collins and Terralong streets (along with the beautification of the adjoining park) was accepted. The memorial, designed by architect Sir Charles Rosenthal, was officially opened on Anzac Day 1925 by Colin’s eldest brother, George Warburton Fuller, who was at that time Premier of NSW.”
Another famous World War I soldier born at Kiama was
Lieutenant Colonel Owen Glendower Howell-Price
http://adbonline.anu.edu.au/biogs/A090714b.htm

Also the story of two Kiama boys Sergeant Walter
P00517
and Frank Farquharson
P00516<http://www.awm.gov.au/research/people/roll_of_honour/person.asp?p=575824
of Kiama, both killed, is well known.
P00518

Walter was carrying this photo of his father Percy when he died.
http://www.awm.gov.au/research/people/roll_of_honour/person.asp?p=575826
http://deepthought.hass.adfa.edu.au:8080/showPerson?pid=94692
P00519

It was the army training camps during World War I which were a major feature of the war for Kiama. There were two, one at the Kiama Showground

Armytents at Showground Point during World War I. Kiama Showground Pavilion in background

and above Kendalls Beach, near the Kiama Hospital. The camps was home to the NSW Signalling School, and also the training camps for new recruits who were reinforcements for the 13TH, 30TH AND 45TH Battalions, AIF.

KIAMA; BEACHES; KENDALLS BEACH; CAMPING; ARMED FORCES; WORLD WAR I, 1914-1918

Many marriages occurred here, just before the soldiers left for France, and the Pilot’s Cottage Museum Kiama has a picture of the first Anzac Day service held at the Showground army camp, which I will post here when I find it. And here is is!
P01288<

Here is another shot of the training camp at the Kiama Showground.
THE TRAINING CAMP FOR NEW RECRUITS WHO ARE DESIGNATED AS REINFORCEMENTS FOR THE 13TH, 30TH AND 45TH BATTALIONS, AIF
And one of the group shots of the men who were training
Hand coloured group portrait of the 19th Reinforcements to the 13th Battalion, seen at camp in Kiama before embarkation.
Hand coloured group portrait of the 19th Reinforcements to the 13th Battalion, seen at camp in Kiama before embarkation.

And here is 30 Battalion entraining at Kiama Station.
30 batt Kiama August 1915
Here is a World War I tank outside the Kiama Council, possibly as a fundraising or enlistment drive.

c 20army tank manning street
In World War II a radar station, No. 18, was on Saddleback Mountain behind Kiama. The concrete supports for the radar mast can still be seen today!

The Doover at 16th Saddleback

The Doover at Radar 18 Saddleback.

Work bench and main switchboard in the doover
The Workbench and main switchboard in the doover at Saddleback
Mountain, Kiama.

There is a great site here
http://home.st.net.au/~dunn/raaf/18radar.htm
which talks about Joyce Dunbar getting a signal for the Japanese scout aircraft as part of the mini-sub attack on Sydney Harbour. Joyce told me that there were frequent reports of Japanese submarines (there were four parked off Sydney for two years tasked to sink iron ore carriers into Port Kembla and Newcastle, of which they got nine, and a total of 23 ship overall) and even a report of a Japanese submarine that pulled into our local East’s Beach for water!

NO. 18 RADAR STATION RAAF ON MOUNT SADDLEBACK,<

LEFT TO RIGHT, CHRIS MCLENNAN, RADAR OPERATOR; GWEN STUART, RADAR OPERATOR; JACK HASTIE, RADAR MECHANIC; MARIE EDWARDS, RADAR OPERATOR; CATHERINE FORD, RADAR OPERATOR; JACK ?; FRANK HOWLETT AND LEO KEELEY, GUARDS. (DONOR: MRS G. COLE
Here is the report from that site
An UNIDENTIFIED PLOT AT KIAMA

Jo Dunbar (nee Lehmann)

Comment: Kiama was one of the early AW installations which was subsequently replaced by a Mk V COL but it retained the old AW aerial. It was the highest air warning set operated by the RAAF being at 1321 feet above sea level. Noel McCormack feels that the main lobe "slid down the hill and stayed close to the water" – good for shipping and low flying aircraft but little else.

It was 19 February 1943. The place 18RS on Saddleback Mountain near Kiama. I was on duty in the dark old doover hut, on the tube gazing at the black screen and pulsating green light.

C.O.L. Mk V transmitter, 18 Radar Direction Finding Station at Mt Saddleback
(Col Mk V Transmitter radar direction finding station at Mt Saddleback)

Nothing but permanent echoes were showing on the screen. The aerial swept round monotonously; the same assorted PE’S came up from the same mountains.

Then I detected a tiny blip not seen before. I called the plot and began tracking it. The blip was so tiny that it kept getting lost in the regular “grass” and than it would show up again. When it was time for me to leave the tube the following operator was unable to locate the mysterious blip. So, I went back “on the tube” and was able to follow a broken course for some time. Fighter sector advised that they had no aircraft in that area and that the plots were too erratic todo anything about them.

Unkind suggestions came back, such as “one should not drink alcohol from the compasses” and other distressing implications. The station was put on alert as the plot showed that an unidentified plane was coming our way. We never actually saw it and that whole thing was forgotten.

Graeme Steinbeck loves a mystery and always wanted to solve the above mystery. Fifty years later, he was reading the Sydney Morning Herald. David Jenkins had written an article about a Japanese Pilot who had made two flights in Australia and never been challenged. The first was over Sydney Harbour before the midget submarine attack in May 1942. The second was on 19 February 1943 when he flew very low right down the NSW coast and then returned to his submarine off the coast.

Susumi Ito said that he flew low between the mountain peaks, so as to remain undetected. He did not go undetected after all. Jo Lehmann plotted him while on duty at 18 Radar Station, Kiama. But Susumi was able to take his photographs and went home.

Today, Susumi Ito is the president of an office equipment and computer firm in Japan. He was interviewed by David Jenkins and the full report of this venture is to be found in his book, Battle surface:- Japan’s submarine War Against Australia, 1942-45.

Kiama is about 100 kms south of Sydney.

Ends.

Kiama of course had residents serving in Korea, Vietnam and even Iraq and Afganistan today (2009) and I will post details of these as I find them.
There were 19 ships sunk off the coast of New South Wales by Japanese submarines (and one German submarine, the U862)
http://maritime.heritage.nsw.gov.au/public/research.cfm?words_id=51&showme=1
Many attacks were situated near Montague Island, about 240 kms south of Kiama. There were 54 German and Japanese vessels which entered Australian waters in World war II
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Axis_naval_activity_in_Australian_waters
The Radar Veterans have a great website here.
http://www.radarreturns.net.au/units.php?name=18RS&text=SE
and
check out this comprehensive site on ‘Australia@War’ here!
http://home.st.net.au/~dunn/
The 19 ships destroyed off the New South Wales Coast were, chronologically:
Nimbin, 1052 tons, 5.12.1940
Millimul, 287 tons, 26.3.1941
Iron Chieftain, 4700 tons, 3.6.1942
Iron Crown, 3353 tons, 4.6.1942
Guatemala, 5527, 14.6.1942
George S. Livanos, 5482 tons, 20.7.1942
Coast Farmer, 3290 tons, 20.7.1942
William Dawes, 7177 tons, 22.7.42
Dureenbee, 223 tons, 3.8.1942
Kalingo, 2047 tons, 17.1.1943
Iron Knight, 4700 tons, 8.2.1943
Starr King, 7176 tons, 9.2.1943
Recina, 4732 tons, 11.4.1943
Limerick, 8724 tons, 26.4.1943
Lydia M. Childs, 7176 tons, 27.4.1943
Wollongbar, 2240 tons, 28.4.1943
Fingal, 2137 tons, 5.5.1943
Portmar, 5551 tons, 16.6.1943
Robert J. Walker, 7180 tons, 24.12.1944
The ship assigned to search for the Robert j. Walker’s surviviors was the HMAS Kiama! from http://www.navy.gov.au/HMAS_Kiama_%28I%29
“On 21 December 1944 KIAMA arrived in Sydney. On Christmas Day the ship’s company was recalled from leave to go to the assistance of the American ship ROBERT J. WALKER, which had been torpedoed and was sinking off the New South Wales coast. Anti-submarine patrols followed until the close of the year.”
Kiama1-2
The HMAS Kiama battle flag was presented to the Kiama Sea Scouts (What happened to it?) in 1962 when it was transferred to the NZ navy and later scrapped. The other flag is displayed at the Memorial Tower at the Kiama Anglican Church, and a couple of crest for boats have been donated to Kiama Council and the Pilot’s Cottage museum. There is a HMAS Kiama crest on the Memorial Arch in Hindmarsh Park in Kiama.
The Captain’s boat still exist as part of a steam ship society and was recently for sale for $8000!
kiama
http://www.steam.co.nz/events_past.html
Merchant_losses2<

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